Friday, December 27, 2019
Clayton Q. McCardell Blake Cason Health-1020 November 5, 2015 Celiac and the Fight for Nutrition Celiac is an autoimmune disease that can occur in victims with the genetic history of celiac (1). Gluten (found in wheat, rye, and barley) is what the body claims to be an intruder and because of this intruder an immune response is triggered causing the inflammation of the small intestines (2). This leads to serious damage to the walls of the small intestine decreasing the productivity in absorbing nutrients. Because celiac is hereditary, it s understood that blood test should be done and your diet should be watched, if there is a history of celiac in the family. To help understand Celiac Disease it helps to know a little of its history. Celiac once named as koiliakos; recognized by a Greek Physician, Aretaeus of Cappadocia (3). The word koiliakos in simpler terms meant abdomen. Aretaeus describes the disease as an irritation of the stomach and whether or not a person actually digests their food. Celiac was not exactly officially recognized as a dis ease until the 19th century. Dr. Mathew Bailie described Celiac as chronic diarrhea and how a continuation of chronic diarrhea eventually leads to malnutrition (4). The severity of this disease was huge and the cause of which unknown. This greatly impacted the health and diet of all victims who did not know the cause of their pain and ultimately their path towards a malnourished life. We can easily jump to conclusions thatShow MoreRelatedGluten Food Gluten Free Is A Popular Trend For Many Americans1665 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesreasons that people are gluten free, some common ones being Celiac disease and general gluten intolerance. In addition, being gluten free is so popular right now that many people are gluten free just because of its popularity. Celiac disease and gluten intolerance are both caused by the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to gluten, which is found in many types of grain, including wheat. Wheat in the United States is causing health problems such as Celiac disease and gluten i ntolerance because wheat companies have putRead MoreMothers and Children Benefit from Breastfeeding Essay880 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesintention is to educate that breast milk provides the perfect nutrition and great brain development. Second, the cost and savings of breast milk will be mentioned. Third, some benefits of breast milk will be discussed. Last to be talked about is the effect breast milk has on the environment. Is there any food on earth that can provide the PERFECT nutrition to a human? Yes, and it is breast milk. Breast milk is the perfect nutrition. This superior food contains hormones, live antibacterial and antiviralRead MoreGood Digestion Is The Foundation Of Good Health906 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesetc. is an expansive topic. For the sake of time, I am going to focus primarily on treating an increasingly common condition called Ã¢â¬Å"leaky gut syndromeÃ¢â¬ , as it can lead to many serious complications down the road. The strategies youÃ¢â¬â¢ll use to help fight this, will also serve to increase your bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s digestive capacity. Simply put, we need to remove this roadblock to ensure optimal digestion and absorption of nutrients. Leaky gut syndrome is a condition where damaged bowel lining leads to increasedRead MoreGenetically Modified Organisms ( Gmo )1665 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgenetically mutated when eating foods containing genetically modified organisms. These antibodies are created within your body through the immune system. Since the body thinks these genetic spliced foods are considered Ã¢â¬Å"foreign objectsÃ¢â¬ , the body tries to fight it off. The concern of plants and different crops growing antibacterial genes through the soil and humans digesting them is the risk of getting sicker for a longer period of time because the antibiotics are not working effectively. Along with theRead MoreNR228 Digestion1858 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages but also encompasses insufficient absorbance of nutrients once food has been eaten. There is a wide array of factors that may lead to malnutrition in an individual. Mechanically, the lack of teeth is a simple but yet common reason of decreased nutrition intake. Though salivary glands are stimulated upon the introduction of food to the mouth, a person with no teeth tends to avoid the more strenuous foods to chew, such as meats, carrots, lettuce, and nuts, and become partial to a lot of soft foodsRead MoreQuestions On Gluten Food Alternatives11407 Words Ã |Ã 46 Pagesproblem with gluten and want to understand the issues surrounding it better? Have you have had problems with gluten already and want to know what you can do about it? Have you just found out that you have been diagnosed with gluten intolerance, celiac disease, or several other conditions that can make gluten your enemy? If any of these things apply to you, then you need to read this guide. Still not convinced? Then think about this; for some people when they eat gluten they can have problemsRead MoreVitamin D and Nutritional Rickets1742 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswith hypertension. Likewise, running certain tests that were mentioned previously in this paper help to diagnose Rickets. Tertiary intervention must occur once the individual has been diagnosed with the disease and from this point forward can only fight against the disease as best as they can. At this stage in the disease you will have the disease and you can only help the disease by doing certain things to help you live longer than expected (if the disease causes fatality). For example, when a patientRead MoreNutrition Assignment 412450 Words Ã |Ã 50 PagesÃ¯ » ¿HUMAN NUTRITION II - FOOD MANAGEMENT Ã¢â¬â NUMBER 4 LESSON1 ASSIGNMENT 1. Cooking is the application of one of two types of heat. Name them and then classify all the methods of cooking (baking, blanching etc) listed in your course according to which type of heat they use. Cooking is the application of one of two types of heats which are using moist or dry methods of cooking. Baking: Baking is a commonly used cooking technique that applies dry heat to a food, along with an air flow. ItRead MoreBurger King5869 Words Ã |Ã 24 PagesTo address concerns over the healthy and nutrition especially in childhood obesity, the company created a nutritional program called Burger King Positive Steps that is aimed at children and their families. The program began with the introduction of products such as new low-fat Kids Club Meal. Moreover, Burger King began to publish a list of which of their products that contain gluten and added menu options designed to help those afflicted with Celiac disease that is individuals with gluten
Thursday, December 19, 2019
There are organ shortages in the United States, which makes organ donation a health concern: Ã¢â¬Å"Today, there are nearly 118,000 individuals waiting for an organ transplant to live healthier, more productive lives. For some people with end-stage organ failure, it is truly a matter of life and death,Ã¢â¬ (Moritsugu, 2013, p.245). Not only is there a shortage of organs but other consequences when it comes to organ donation, such as psychological concerns, complications after surgery and deciding who receives the organs. First off, some psychological issues occur when the recipient is waiting for their organs, as it will take time to adjust about their organ. The donor will also go through psychological issues as well, such as dealing with theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦From a utilitarian perspective, becoming an organ donor saves time and money. By having an enormous amount of organ donors, this will allow a shorter time span for the recipient to be waiting for the organ and t hey will have a chance to live longer. There will be no concern of a wait list because there will be enough organs if everyone contributed. Also, it will cut down on the cost of healthcare for the recipient because making numerous hospital visits and having treatment to keep up the dying organ adds up. Some individuals have to pay out of pocket for their medical care because they do not have health insurance or sadly some individuals just wait till their body gives up the fight because the medical costs are too high. According to Jacoby, Ã¢â¬Å"If the government were to begin paying $45,000 for each donated kidney. Taxpayers would end up saving $12 billion annually in pubic expenditures. And for society and the economy as a whole, the study estimated, the Ã¢â¬Ënet benefitÃ¢â¬â¢ from saving so many lives and reducing the need for dialysis would be $46 billion per year.Ã¢â¬ (Jacoby, 2016, p.4) By donating organs when we die, this will allow the recipient to have lower treatment costs and save time for not only themselves, but for family members and society as well. Time and money are not the only concept that can be saved but resources. ForShow MoreRelatedEffects on Organ Donation2404 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesEFFECTS OF ORGAN DONATION FACTS ABOUT ORGAN DONATION * Like any surgery, after the donation procedure, the wound is closed and no visible mark is present as a tell-tale sign of the surgery. * The organs are removed only after the patient is declared brain dead and within 12 to 24 hours, the organs are removed for transplantation. * The success rate of organ transplantation on an average is between 75% to 85%. * Kidney, lungs, heart, skin, pancreas, liver, bones, eyes and intestinesRead MoreOrgan Donation And Its Effects On The Donor Essay1694 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmortal donation also takes away any chance of effects on the donor. Since the donor is deceased, there is no worry of the effects because of two reasons: they are no longer living and they have no use for their viable organs anymore. With the several pros and cons of postmortal donation, comes the different aspects of inter vivos donation. When organs are taken from living donors and are transplanted there are also several pros and cons present. One disadvantage in live organ donation is the effectRead MoreEuthanasia Organ Donation And The Effects On Organ Shortages1679 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesENG106 Professor Tiedt Euthanasia Organ Donation and the Effects on Organ Shortages Ã¢â¬Å"The shortages in transplantable organs worldwide not only leads to unnecessary death, but also to grave human right abuses though illegal methods of procuring organsÃ¢â¬ (Statz, 2006, p. 1).With the decrease in solid organs available, the demand for organs increase and fail to meet the needs of patients facing organ failure. The only options to receive an organ includes receiving an organ from a family member, begin turningRead MoreThe Cause And Effect Of Organ Donation Among The Other Western World Countries Essay1501 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesones, this is not always the case for the millions of men, women and children that have been affected by this heedless epidemic. The reality is, Canada is one of the worst countries in regards to organ donation among the other Western World countries; nearly two thousand Canadians register for a new organ each year, but only half of the men, women and children on the recipient list may get one in the next twelve months. Our current sys tem in Canada is adequate, but it is not great nor is it efficient;Read MoreOrgan Donation : Organ Organs1054 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOrgan Donation Organ donation occurs when a failing or damaged organ, is replaced with a new organ, through a surgical operation. The two sources of organs for donation come from a deceased person and a living person. The organs that are received from a deceased person are called cadaveric organs. A person can indicate on his or her driverÃ¢â¬â¢s license if they want to be an organ donor after they die. There are some states that allow for family consent for organ removal, regardless if the deceasedRead MoreOrgan Donation : Organ Donations Essay1323 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPreviously organ donation has encountered organ donors and organ supply rejections. Organ donation challenges and demands decreased as the organ shortages increase over the years. Organ donation mission is to save many terminally ill recipients at the end stages of their lives, the significance of the organ donation is to give back to restore oneÃ¢â¬â¢s quality of life. The ongoing issues may present an idealistic portrai t of how these issues may be resolved. As a result organ donation mission is toRead MoreOrgan Donation And Organ Organs Essay1308 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOrgan donations have encountered organ donor and organ supply rejections. Organ donation challenges and demands increase as the organ shortages increase over the years. Organ donationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission is to save many terminally ill recipients at the end stages of their lives. The significance of the organ donation is to give back to restore oneÃ¢â¬â¢s quality of life. The ongoing issues may present an idealistic portrait of how these issues may be resolved. As a result, the mission of organ donations are toRead MoreOrgan Donation : A Necessary Part Of The Healthcare Field Essay1332 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOrgan donation saves lives, and is a necessary part of the healthcare field. However, organ donation is failing to save as many lives as it could because of the low participation rates among the general population. There are num erous types of organ donation, and various organs that can be donated. Several issues need to be resolved and some systems need to be reformed to help increase the level of organ donation to meet demand. Several improvements such as creating an opt-out registration systemRead MoreOrgan Procurement And Transplantation Network1321 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswhile waiting for a donated organ to become available for transplant. The number of people in need of a transplant is growing much faster than the number of cadaveric organ donors: from 1988 to 2012, the number of people on the waiting list grew from 15,029 to 117,040, while, during the same interval, the number of deceased donors rose from 5,901 to a still inadequate 14,011 (Ã¢â¬Å"Organ Procurement and Transplantation NetworkÃ¢â¬ ). In the United States, the cadaveric donation system is described as Ã¢â¬Å"informedRead MoreSpeech on Organ Donation Essay1260 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSpeech on Organ Donation Good Morning. Today I am going to talk to you all about the delicate topic of organ donation, and share with you some of my views on the subject. What are the major problems in our society today? Illicit Drug Abuse? Excessive Alcohol intake? Or maybe the increasing levels of Obesity? I bet none of you thought of the sheer
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Taxation for National Bureau of Economic Research. Answer: Capital gain Tax (CGT) Capital gain means the gain from the transfer of capital asset. It means the difference between capital proceed and cost base. It is obtained from deducting cost base from capital proceed (Burkhauser, Hahn Wilkins, 2015). It is not always that gain will arise on the sale of capital asset loss can also arise. Australian Tax Authority (ATO) has prescribed depending various tax treatment depending upon the gain or loss arising from sale of capital asset. It is taxable on accrual basis i.e. taxable in the year in which asset is sold (Faccio Xu, 2015). Capital asset means any asset, which is not held in the ordinary course of business for sale. It does not include personal affect i.e. property held for personal use like wearing apparel, furniture, personal use cars etc. However, personal affect does not include jewellery and archeological collection like Gold chain, gold bangles etc. Rural agricultural land is not included in the definition of capital asset (Alvaredo et. al., 2013 ). Capital Proceed means the sales consideration for which the capital asset is sold. Any amount forfeited because of entering into any agreement for sale previously entered into but could not materialize shall be deducted from the capital proceed (Woellner et. al., 2012). Cost base is the purchase price for which the asset is purchased. It also includes various incidental charges required for purchase of asset like brokerage charges, installation cost, stamp duty etc (McClure, Lanis Govendir, 2016). As per ATO, Capital gain is calculated using three methods: CGT Discount method- This method is applied if capital asset is held for more than 12 months and acquired after 21st Sept 1999. In this method capital gain arrived is reduced by 50% for individuals and 33.33% for superannuation funds (Ehling et.al., 2013). Indexation method- This method is applied if capital asset is held for more than 12 months and acquired before 21st Sept 1999.In this case indexation benefit is available up to the Sept 1999. This method increases the cost base (Vann, 2014). Residual method- This method is applied when capital asset is held for less than 12 months. There are certain capital asset which are exempted from the purview of Capital gain tax (CGT) like Residential House, Items of personal use of value less than $10000, Motor car, Depreciable Asset held for trading purpose, collectable of value less than $500. Capital gains/ Loss are of two types Short term-It arises when capital asset held for less than 12 months is sold. Long Term- It arises when capital asset held for more than 12 months is sold. Short term capital loss can be set off against the short term capital gain and also with long term capital gain. Whereas, Long term capital gain can be set off only against long term capital gain and not with short term capital gain. Capital loss not set off can be carry forward and set off only against capital gain and not from any other source for indefinite period. In this given problem, Dave Solomon was living in his own two storied residential house for almost 30 years that was acquired by him for $70000 and was sold on 27th June of current year for $ 850000. He has previously entered into an agreement for sale of his house, which, could not be materialized, and so the advance money was forfeited amounting to $ 85000. Mr. Dave Solomon is not chargeable to CGT on sale of residential house as capital gain on sale of one residential house is exempted from the purview of CGT as per ATO. A painting, which was acquired almost 30 years back for $15000, was sold for $125000 on 31st may of the current tax year. Since it was purchased before 21st September 1999 indexation method shall be allowed. Capital Proceed 125000 Less: Indexed Cost Base (15000*123.4/71.3) 25961 Long Term capital gain 150961 A Motor Cruiser, which was acquired in the late 2004 for $60000 from a local boat broker and sold in the current year for $110000. Since it was purchased after 21st September 1999, discount method shall be applied. Capital Proceed 60000 Less: Indexed Cost Base 110000 Long Term capital Loss 50000 Shares that was purchased in 5th june of the current year was sold on 10th January of the current year. Since the shares were held for less than 12 months residual method will apply. N-1) Computation of Cost base Purchase Price 75000 Brokerage 750 Stamp duty 250 Total 76000 Capital Proceed 80000 Less: Indexed Cost Base(N-1) 76000 Short Term capital gain 4000 Therefore Total capital Gain of Dave Solomon is as follows: $ Long-term capital gain on sale of Residential House Nil Long-term capital gain on sale of paintings 150961 Long-term capital loss on sale of Cruiser (50000) Short term capital gain on sale of Shares 4000 Bought forward Capital Loss of previous year (10000) Long term capital gain 94961 Net Capital gain is obtained by adding all the capital gain from sale of capital asset during the year and deducting from it any capital loss during the year. Capital loss from previous year is also to be deducted i.e. set off with current year capital gain. After that Net capital gain is to assessable as income of the assess if he had no other income and he is required to pay tax on the same. Since, Mr. Dave has a net capital gains of $ 94961 he has pay tax during the current year. He can also contribute toward personal endowment fund. He is also required to maintain various important document when any significant transaction occurs like Sales and purchase receipt, litigation expenses, expenses relating to repairs, interest on loans, brokerage and stamp duty expenses etc. Net capital loss is the aggregate of all capital loss derived from sale of capital asset during the year that includes capital loss of previous year also that could not be set of in the earlier year. Capital loss can only be set off only with capital gain and not from any other source and capital loss not set off can be carried forward indefinitely and set off only against income for capital gain and not from any other source. Fringe Benefit Tax (FBT) FBT is paid by the employer of the company on non-monetary perquisite given by the employer to the employee. It is paid on those benefit provided by employer to the employee which is not taxable in the hands of employee (Braverman, Marsden, Sadiq, 2015). There are certain items which are exempted from the purview of FBT which are as follows: Work related expenses Benefits whose value is less than $300 Housing allowances provided for houses located in remote areas. Car provided for the official purpose Relocation expenses of employees. Exempted loans (Hodgson Pearce, 2015) Employers are liable to pay FBT on the following items: Payment of expenses Residual and Property Car parking Airline Loan Housing Transport Car (Stanley McCue, 2014) Under the scope of FBT, Car is defined as a vehicle or station cart used to carry net weight of not more than 1 ton or a vehicle which have of the capacity of carrying not more than 9 passenger (Gupta Sawyer, 2015). On the other hand, If a car is provided by the employer to the employee which does not fall within the definition of car as per FBT and it is used by the employee for personal purpose then it will be liable for the payment of FBT by the employer. If a car is given to the employee for not more than 3 months then it cannot be presumed that the employee is holding the car and so such benefit is not liable to FBT (Woellner, 2012). If the car is not at the premises of the employer and is provided to the employee for personal use, which is garaged with the employee, then it will be treated as used for private purpose. As per FBT, if a car is at the repair station for repair purpose then it will excluded from the definition of car for personal use (Scott, Currie Tivendale, 201 2). FBT can be calculated by using two methods , Cost basic method and applying statutory formulas. Employer have to pay FBT on loans given to the employees if loan is provided at a rate of interest which is lower than the market rate (Murray Martin, 2015). In the given problem, Periwinkle Pty, a bathtub manufacturer company which directly sales bathtub to public has provided to Emma, its employee a car on 1st May 2005 that is used by Emma for work purpose. However, Emma can use it for personal purpose also as per the policy of the company. The car was purchased by the company for $ 33000 on the above mentioned day. Emma has travelled 10000 km by the Car within the period 1st may 2015 to 31st March 2016 and has also incurred expenditure of $ 550 on repairs which has been reimbursed by the company. The car was parked at airport for that reason it was not used for 10 days. The car was also not used for 5 days when it was programmed for repairs. On 1st Sept 2015, Emma has been provided a loan of $ 500000 by the company at an interest rate of 4045%. Emma acquired a holiday home valued $ 450000 with the loan taken from the company and the balance was given to her husband for acquiring shares in Telstra. Emma also purchased a bathtub made by Periwinkle for $ 1300. The cost of producing off which is $ 700 which is sold to the public at $ 2600. Taxability of Car Cost of the car = $ 33000 Number of days the car was used as per provisions of FBT = 335-5 = 330 (Number of days car was in repairing will not in included in the number of days. However, number of days the car was in airport will be included in the number of days as per the provisions of FBT. If the car would have at the employers premises then it would not have been for FBT. The car has travelled for less than 15000 km during the Fringe Benefit period so rate of tax will be 20%) Value of taxable benefit (33000*330/365*20%) = 5967 Less: Expenses incurred by the employer = 550 FBT 5417 Taxability of Loan In this problem Benchmark i.e. market rate of interest is 5.95% but the company has given loan to its employee at an interest rate of 4.45%. Therefore, the company is liable to pay FBT on the difference of interest rate i.e. 1.5% (5.95% - 4.45%). FBT payable = 500000*1.5% = $ 7500 Emma has used $ 450000 for purchase of residential house and has given $ 5000 to her husband for purchase of shares in Telstra. Therefore, FBT payable will remain same i.e. $ 7500. If Emma uses the entire amount of loan for her own purpose i.e. for acquiring house property for $ 450000 and buying Shares for $ 50000 and no part is given to her husband then FBT will be calculated as follows: Taxable value of fringe benefit loan without otherwise deductible value (500000*1.5%) = $ 7500 Assuming the loan was interest free and ignoring any interest charged (500000*5.95%) = $ 29750 Now say employee had paid interest equivalent to amount of taxable value (29750*10/100) = $ 2975 Now if employee is being charged interest on loan (500000*10%*4045%) = $ 2225 Subtracting d. from c. we get, $ 2975 - $ 2225 = $ 750 Now by deducting e. from a. we get, $ 7500 - $ 750 = $ 6750. Therefore FBT payable = $ 6750 Fringe Benefit Waiver of Debt In this given problem, Emma has bought a bathtub from Periwinkle at a price of $ 1300, which is sold by the company in the external market to the public for $ 2600. Therefore, the difference between the market price and purchase price i.e. $ 1300 ($ 2600 - $ 1300) is liability for Fringe Benefit. References Alvaredo, F., Atkinson, A. B., Piketty, T., Saez, E. (2013).The top 1 percent in international and historical perspective(No. w19075). National Bureau of Economic Research. Braverman, D., Marsden, S. J., Sadiq, K. (2015). Assessing taxpayer response to legislative changes: A case study of in-housefringe benefits rules.Journal of Australian Taxation,17(1), 1-52. Burkhauser, R. V., Hahn, M. H., Wilkins, R. (2015). Measuring top incomes using tax record data: A cautionary tale from Australia.The Journal of Economic Inequality,13(2), 181-205. Ehling, P., Gallmeyer, M. F., Srivastava, S., Tompaidis, S., Yang, C. (2013, December). Portfolio choice with capital gain taxation and the limited use of losses. InEFA 2008 Athens Meetings Paper. Faccio, M., Xu, J. (2015). Taxes and capital structure.Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis,50(03), 277-300. Gupta, R., Sawyer, A. J. (2015, November). The costs of compliance and associated benefits for small and medium enterprises in New Zealand: some recent findings. InAustralian Tax Forum(Vol. 30). Hodgson, H., Pearce, P. (2015). TravelSmart or travel tax breaks: is the fringe benefits tax a barrier to active commuting in Australia? 1.eJournal of Tax Research,13(3), 819. McClure, R., Lanis, R., Govendir, B. (2016). Analysis of Tax Avoidance Strategies of Top Foreign Multinationals Operating in Australia: An Expose. Murray, I., Martin, F. (2015). The Blossoming of Public Benevolent Institutions--From'Direct'Providers to Global Networks. Scott, R. A., Currie, G. V., Tivendale, K. J. (2012). Company cars and fringe benefit taxunderstanding the impacts on strategic transport targets February 2012. Stanley, J., McCue, P. (2014). Action area 11Financial measures.Blueprint for an active Australia,1, 72. Vann, R. J. (2014). Hybrid Entities in Australia: Resource Capital Fund III LP Case.Tax Treaty Case Law. Woellner, R., Barkoczy, S., Murphy, S., Evans, C., Pinto, D. (2012).Australian taxation law. CCH Australia. Woellner, R., Barkoczy, S., Murphy, S., Evans, C., Pinto, D. (2012).Australian taxation law. CCH Australia.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s society lives in a fast-paced environment and we expect businesses to accommodate to our needs quicker than ever. In our fast moving business world creating just the right image in the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s eye is essential for the survival for any organization. Public Relations professionals have to deal precisely with this aspect of every business. These professionals work hard at developing a good, positive relationship between a firm and the public it serves. Investing in good public relations for your business will help achieve its objective efficiently. Effective Public Relations can create and build up the image of an organization. During times of adverse publicity an effective Public Relations can remove the misunderstanding and can create mutual understanding between the business and the public. This paper will focus on how Starbucks uses public relations to create brand and influence public opinion. It will then focus on how the 21st century has help Starbucks adopt social media websites to help promote its business. We will write a custom essay sample on Public Relations of Starbucks or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Next, we will look into a couple of crisis Starbucks has dealt with. Lastly, we will look into similarities and differences between public relations campaigns of Starbucks and a nonprofit organization. Starbucks is a roaster and retailer of coffee with over 9,031 company-operated retail stores and 7,972 licensed stores worldwide. (Starbucks Corp. (NMS: SBUX)) Starbucks is a business that prides itself on more than just retailers of coffee, but being a place for people to come in and chat, meet up or even work. I know this was true for me, I use to use Starbucks coffee shops to work on my homework, back when I attending classes in-residence. I had the toughest time trying to do homework at home so I would either go to the coffee shop or the library. Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢re a neighborhood gathering place, a part of the daily routineÃ¢â¬ (Starbucks, 2011). Public Relations play a vital role in developing a credible and recognizable brand online and offline for any business and it harnesses the power of third party testimonials in the media. It delivers a tremendous return on investments because the articles and stories generated n the media are credible. When a PR program is implemented in conjunction with marketing and advertising programs, a brand can be developed and strengthened over time. A brand is not tangible. A successful brand lives in the minds and hearts of your customers. It is all of the things they think of when they think of your company or your product. Starbucks Public Relations professionals recognized this when building the brand of their company, since the very first store opened in 1971, Starbucks as a brand has been evolving. The Siren has been a part of Starbucks from the beginning. Ã¢â¬Å"Her image, originally derived from a twin-tailed siren in an old sixteenth-century Norse woodcut, was at the center of Starbucks original logo. She embodies Starbucks and our coffee Ã¢â¬â evoking coffeeÃ¢â¬â¢s allure and its seafaring traditionÃ¢â¬ (Brand Evolution FAQs, 2011). Senior Vice president of marketing at Starbucks, Anne Saunders, said Ã¢â¬Å"it really is about connecting with someone in a more intimate, experiential way that we think will have longer lasting ability to build affinity than a 30-second TV commercial or an adÃ¢â¬ (Echols, 2011). Starbucks spends very little money on advertising, preferring instead to build the brand cup by cup with customers and depend on word-of-mouth and the appeal of its storefronts. They relied on consistent service and quality to get customers talking, and once they started talking, it seems they did not stop and the Starbucks brand was born. The public relations decision to leave it to the consumers to spread the word about the new brand was sketchy to other big-named businesses, but this word-of-mouth technique has served the company well in more ways than one. According to our text, Ã¢â¬Å"Today more than ever, the world needs not more information but also savvy communicators and facilitators who can explain the goals and aspirations of individuals, organizations, and governments to others in a socially responsive mannerÃ¢â¬ (Cameron, 2008). This choice has been effective for Starbucks by separating itself from the mass commercials thrown at the public, but the technique itself lends Starbucks an air of sophistication. By not falling into the hype of commercials in its marketing, Starbucks established what it values most- people rather than profit. Starbucks technique of brand marketing has given other Public Relations professionals a creative method to follow when creating campaigns for their clients. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not always effective to do what everyone else is doing. Sometimes itÃ¢â¬â¢s not about keeping up with trends. In order to keep a positive image in the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s eye it is crucial for any business to run a public relations campaign, however, the traditional modes of running such a campaign are slowly becoming obsolete. It is more necessary now than ever for businesses to update their public relations campaign for the 21st century, and tackle the new methodologies and tools, which include blogging and social media sites. The Internet allows companies to take on a new benefit that they would not be able to use in the real world. Having the availability to create services online will ensure your brand is stronger than the rest and the web is just to place to do it. Unlike other media, online customers can interact with the brand and its identity in a way no other medium can offer. Our text said, Ã¢â¬Å"Public relations personnel are expanding their communication tools to account for the fact that no single mass medium will be a good vehicle for reaching key publicsÃ¢â¬ (Cameron, 2008). Social media sites, like Facebook is a huge opportunity for businesses to promote their brand online to millions of people at once and at no cost. StarbuckÃ¢â¬â¢s social media strategy incorporates several different elements into the mix and combined together, these elements create a social media plan that works well to create millions of fans for the brand and keep them involved in what the brand is doing. Starbucks uses social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn to create a digital dialogue with its customers. Alexandra Wheeler director of Digital Strategy was hired on by Starbucks to Ã¢â¬Å"conduct research into how the company could use digital media and explain to the business how it could help drive customer satisfaction and sales, as well as save moneyÃ¢â¬ (Shore, 2010). Soon after Wheeler provided the company with the necessary information Starbucks entered the social media scene with the Ã¢â¬ËMy Starbucks Idea siteÃ¢â¬â¢, which allowed customers and employees to interact and suggest ways of improving the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s services and products. Since the beginning of Starbucks, they have been testing social media sites and have used such sites to help promote events and activities Ã¢â¬Å"such as free pastry day, which successfully drove around 1 million extra people in-store to buy a coffee and claim their free pastryÃ¢â¬ (Shore, 2010). This yearÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing proposals include Ã¢â¬Å"social-media efforts and advertising for Frappuccino- which the company said has been the most engaging product on Facebook in the last year, as well as a digital scavenger hunt featuring Lady GagaÃ¢â¬ (MORRISON). Starbucks also used social media to promote their 40th anniversary and a new website MyStarbucksSignature allowing its customers to create customized drinks. It is evident Starbucks has properly researched the benefits of using social media to promote their brand and interact positively with their customers. The holidays are a big part of any retail store and Starbucks is just the same. Again, the company reaches out to the help of social media to utilize the power of promotions during this time. Ã¢â¬Å"The coffee makers have used a streaming music service called Pandora to create a playlist and then encourage listeners to go in store to collect their free Ã¢â¬ËAll You Need Is LoveÃ¢â¬â¢ CD. To collect their free CD customers must spend 15 dollars or more and in return Starbucks have pledged to give one dollar to fight aids in Africa for every CD that is given awayÃ¢â¬ (Starbucks uses social media for holiday promotions, 2009). Additionally, Starbucks has created special Flikr and Facebook pages where coffee drinkers can post holiday themed pictures of them and also submit digital drawings to their Starbucks Love Project site. (Starbucks Red, 2011) Starbucks has promised to give 5 cents to Red, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s charity brand, for everyone of the first million images that are submitted. Starbucks have revealed that last year their use of social media was merely a trial but now they feel that it has become an integral part of their marketing strategy. Just like any business there are peaks and pitfalls, and Starbucks has seen their fair share of both. In 2001 Starbucks came under attack by the Organic Consumers Association. The Organic Consumers Association used the Internet to launch their campaign against Starbucks, attacking them for using genetically engineered products, primarily their milk. The Organic Consumers Association refused to meet with Starbucks until their demands were met. (Fair Trade vs. Starbucks , 2011) While monitoring their campaign site, purefoods. org, Starbucks worked out their crisis management plan. First, Starbucks CEO released a letter talking about the use of genetically produced products. They also changed their internal community such as their partners and employees. He addressed consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ concern for the use of these products and decided that Starbucks would now offer an rBST-free milk option with future plans to make all milk rBST-free milk if supplies allowed it. They continued their actions to manage the situation and were successful in keeping their good name by handling this crisis in an informative, prepared manner. (Butler, 2008). Even more recently, Starbucks has come under scrutinty for the way it has been treating its members of the Armed Forces. A former Veteran tried to walk into Starbucks with his service dog and the manager went on a rampage about why the Veteran thought he could bring the dog into a public place like Starbucks. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe the dog was a service dog and kicked them both out and refused service to the individual. Starbucks released a statement apologizing to the customer and hoped they could serve him in the future. Nonprofit and for-profit businesses have multiple similarities and difference. The process of marketing also differs, with the biggest differing factor being the purpose of for-profit marketing is to encourage customers to buy, while the purpose of nonprofit marketing is to encourage people to give. Ã¢â¬Å"Nonprofit, or not-for-profit, organizations can be defined as organizations whose main purpose is to serve the public interest and are noncommercialÃ¢â¬ (Cameron, 2008). The returns on investment vary between the two, although the principles of marketing remain the same, some of the methods must be different. (Devaro, 2007). The purpose of marketing for-profit businesses is to inform potential customers in your target market know about your product or service and how it can benefit them, with a goal of selling it in exchange for money. The corporation keeps the money, and the customer enjoys the product or service he/she has purchased. For profit marketing also focuses on developing new markets for existing products or identifying markets for new product lines. Whereas, a non-profit business markets the work it does or cause it supports, instead of a product or service. Our text says, Ã¢â¬Å"the crucial difference is that no shareholders receive dividends, all excess funds are reinvested in the institution, and they are tax-exemptÃ¢â¬ (Cameron, 2008). The purpose of marketing is to build awareness of an issue and gaining financial support from the public for a particular cause. The customer gives money to the organization in exchange for the opportunity to contribute towards its humanitarian work. As with for profit marketing, the result is that the corporation keeps the funds, while the individual retains the knowledge that the organization uses his money to make a difference for its cause. For-profit companies can market using a variety of common methods, such as marketing mix, target market identification, position, branding, and public relations and advertising. Not for profits may also use the majority of these methods; for instance, the non-profit will conduct market analysis to identify potential donors and sponsors. The nonprofit advertises the work it does using similar media as for-profit, such as online and print, radio and possibly television advertising. Public relations professionals work just as hard as they do in for profit environments to build the visibility of the organization, maintain its reputation and establish its image as an authority in its field, while direct sales are likely to take the form of a request for a donation. The key difference between the marketing of the two types of businesses is the fulfillment of the customer need. The for-profit marketing customer has a need of his own that he fulfills by the purchase of the goods or services; the nonprofit customer recognizes the need of others and his ability to help accomplish it through donation of his time, money or service. For this reason, retail sales of the primary product or service do not apply to the nonprofit corporation. Many nonprofits do conduct retail sales of promotional items to help raise funds, but this is not their primary product or service. In conclusion, Building and promoting a brand takes a lot of consideration and methodical processing, however, if a company puts forth the effort and research for good public relations professional they can make exceptional head-way on the competition. The changes in the 21st century have made it easier for companies, both for-profit and non-profit businesses to communicate easier with their consumers. The way businesses handle their Public Relations will further enhance the likelihood through its own growth and development and will produce more successful public relations practitioners and leaders and advance the professionÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution to society.